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Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2013 Oct;23(5):568-75. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01438.x. Epub 2012 Jan 18.

Translation and measurement properties of the Swedish version of ACL-Return to Sports after Injury questionnaire.

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Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.


Psychological factors may be a hindrance for returning to sport after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The ACL-Return to Sport after Injury scale (ACL-RSI) measures athletes' emotions, confidence in performance, and risk appraisal in relation to return to sport. The aim of this study was to translate the ACL-RSI scale from English to Swedish and to examine some of the measurement properties of the Swedish version. The ACL-RSI was translated and culturally adapted. A professional expert group and five patients evaluated face validity. One hundred and eighty-two patients completed the translated ACL-RSI, a project-specific questionnaire, the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), the Knee-Self-Efficacy Scale (K-SES), the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC-C), the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and the Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Quality of Life (ACL-QoL) questionnaires. Fifty-three patients answered the ACL-RSI twice to examine reproducibility. The ACL-RSI showed good face validity, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.948), low floor and ceiling effects and high construct validity when evaluated against the TSK, K-SES, MHLC-C, KOOS, and ACL-QoL scales. The reproducibility was also high (intra-class correlation = 0.893). Therefore, the ACL-RSI can be used to evaluate psychological factors relevant to returning to sport after ACL reconstruction surgery.


COSMIN; knee injury; psychological response

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