Send to

Choose Destination
Nephrology (Carlton). 2012 May;17(4):372-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1797.2012.01565.x.

Anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in preventing cyclosporine A-induced nephropathy.

Author information

Departments of Nephrology, School of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.



Although the pathogenesis of cyclosporine (CsA) nephropathy is not completely understood, it is attributed to oxidative damage and apoptosis. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) is a molecule with anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. Our aim was to demonstrate the effects of GSPE in preventing CsA nephropathy.


Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. The control, GSPE, CsA and CsA+GSPE groups were given 1 mL olive oil, 100 mg/kg GSPE, 25 mg/kg CsA and 100 mg/kg GSPE+25 mg/kg CsA, respectively. On day 21, blood samples were taken for blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and CsA levels, and renal tissue was used for total oxidant system (TOS), total anti-oxidant system (TAS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and malondialdehyde (MDA) measurements. In addition to renal histopathology, apoptosis staining was performed on renal tissue.


The BUN, creatinine, TOS, OSI, MDA, histopathological score, and apoptotic index exhibited increases in the CsA group. In the CsA+GSPE group, however, BUN, creatinine, OSI, MDA, renal histopathological score and apoptotic index (AI) decreased and TAS levels increased. In addition, there was no difference between the CsA and CsA+GSPE groups with regard to CsA levels.


We demonstrated that GSPE prevents CsA nephropathy and that this effect is achieved by anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant activity. We also achieved a significant recovery in kidney functions without affecting CsA plasma levels.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center