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PLoS One. 2012;7(1):e29762. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029762. Epub 2012 Jan 11.

Deconstruction of the (paleo)polyploid grapevine genome based on the analysis of transposition events involving NBS resistance genes.

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1
IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, S. Michele all'Adige, Trento, Italy.

Abstract

Plants have followed a reticulate type of evolution and taxa have frequently merged via allopolyploidization. A polyploid structure of sequenced genomes has often been proposed, but the chromosomes belonging to putative component genomes are difficult to identify. The 19 grapevine chromosomes are evolutionary stable structures: their homologous triplets have strongly conserved gene order, interrupted by rare translocations. The aim of this study is to examine how the grapevine nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-encoding resistance (NBS-R) genes have evolved in the genomic context and to understand mechanisms for the genome evolution. We show that, in grapevine, i) helitrons have significantly contributed to transposition of NBS-R genes, and ii) NBS-R gene cluster similarity indicates the existence of two groups of chromosomes (named as Va and Vc) that may have evolved independently. Chromosome triplets consist of two Va and one Vc chromosomes, as expected from the tetraploid and diploid conditions of the two component genomes. The hexaploid state could have been derived from either allopolyploidy or the separation of the Va and Vc component genomes in the same nucleus before fusion, as known for Rosaceae species. Time estimation indicates that grapevine component genomes may have fused about 60 mya, having had at least 40-60 mya to evolve independently. Chromosome number variation in the Vitaceae and related families, and the gap between the time of eudicot radiation and the age of Vitaceae fossils, are accounted for by our hypothesis.

PMID:
22253773
PMCID:
PMC3256180
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0029762
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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