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Anat Sci Int. 2012 Jun;87(2):106-10. doi: 10.1007/s12565-011-0129-3. Epub 2012 Jan 18.

The peroneus quartus muscle: clinical correlation with evolutionary importance.

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Department of Anatomy, Peoples College of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.


The peroneus quartus (PQ) is an accessory muscle of the peroneal/lateral compartment of the leg. The muscle has often been implicated as a cause of pain in the lateral ankle region, and subluxation or attrition of the peroneal tendons. The present study was aimed at observing the prevalence and morphology of this muscle in human cadavers. Ninety-two embalmed lower limbs were dissected for this study. The PQ muscle was found in 21% of the limbs. In all these limbs it originated from the lower part of the lateral surface of the fibula, the undersurface of peroneus brevis and the posterior intermuscular septum. In the majority of limbs, insertion was on the retrotrochlear eminence of the calcaneus. Taking into account the possibility of this muscle being a cause of lateral ankle pathology, the present study attempts to correlate the findings with the anatomy of the surrounding region. The frequent occurrence of this muscle in humans is suggestive of a progressive evolutionary change to evert the foot in order to assume a bipedal gait.

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