Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012 Feb;31(2):171-5. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e318245636b.

Maternal vitamin D status and child morbidity, anemia, and growth in human immunodeficiency virus-exposed children in Tanzania.

Author information

  • 1Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.



Vitamin D may help prevent adverse pediatric outcomes, including infectious diseases and growth failure, based on its role in immune and metabolic functions. We examined the association of maternal vitamin D status and pediatric health outcomes in children born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women.


Vitamin D status was determined in 884 HIV-infected pregnant women at 12 to 27 weeks of gestation in a trial of vitamin supplementation (not excluding vitamin D) in Tanzania. Information on child morbidities, anemia and hypochromic microcytosis, and anthropometry was recorded through monthly clinic visits. Generalized estimating equations and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the relationships of outcomes with maternal vitamin D status.


A total of 39% of women had low vitamin D levels (<32 ng/mL). Children born to women with low vitamin D status were 1.11 times more likely to report cough during follow-up (relative risk [RR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.21). No significant associations were noted for other respiratory symptoms, diarrhea, or anemia outcomes. Low maternal vitamin D status was associated with significantly increased risk of stunting (height-for-age z score, <-2; RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.05-1.59) and being underweight (weight-for-age z score, <-2; RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.03-1.71).


Maternal vitamin D status may be important for preventing respiratory infections and ensuring optimal growth in HIV-exposed children.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center