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J Midwifery Womens Health. 2012 Jan-Feb;57(1):28-34. doi: 10.1111/j.1542-2011.2011.00091.x. Epub 2011 Nov 14.

Evaluation of a student-nurse doula program: an analysis of doula interventions and their impact on labor analgesia and cesarean birth.

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Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.



The aim of this study was to describe specific doula interventions, explore differences in doula interventions by attending provider (certified nurse-midwife vs obstetrician), and examine associations between doula interventions, labor analgesia, and cesarean birth in women receiving doula care from student nurses.


A secondary analysis of data from the Birth Companions Program at the Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing was conducted using t tests, chi-square statistics, and logistic regression models.


In the 648 births in the sample, doulas used approximately 1 more intervention per labor with certified nurse-midwife clients compared to obstetrician clients. In multivariate analysis, the increase in the total number of interventions provided by doulas was associated with decreased odds of epidural (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86-0.98) and cesarean birth (AOR 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.95). When examined separately, a greater number of physical interventions was associated with decreased odds of epidural (AOR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.78-0.92) and cesarean birth (AOR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.73-0.88), but number of emotional/informational interventions was not.


Student nurses trained as doulas have the opportunity to provide a variety of interventions for laboring clients. An increase in the number of interventions, especially physical interventions, provided by doulas may decrease the likelihood of epidural use and cesarean birth.

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