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Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Feb;54 Suppl 1:S44-54. doi: 10.1093/cid/cir867.

Healthcare-associated mucormycosis.

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  • 1Sorbonne Paris Cité, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, APHP, Université Paris-Descartes, Centre d'Infectiologie Necker-Pasteur, 149 rue de Sèvres, Paris Cedex 15, France.


Mucormycosis is a severe emerging invasive fungal infection that occurs as a consequence of environmental exposure. We exhaustively reviewed all the cases of mucormycosis (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group 2008 criteria) attributed to healthcare procedures that occurred between 1970 and 2008. A total of 169 cases were studied (29% children, 61% male). Major underlying diseases were solid organ transplantation (24%), diabetes mellitus (22%), and severe prematurity (21%). Skin was the most common localization (57%), followed by gastrointestinal tract (15%). Culture results were available in 75% (92% positive), and results of histological examination were positive in 95%. Rhizopus was the most frequent genus (43%). Infection portal of entry included surgery and presence of medical devices such as catheters or adhesive tape. Outbreaks and clusters were related to adhesive bandages (19 cases), wooden tongue depressors (n = 5), ostomy bags (n = 2), water circuitry damage (n = 2), and adjacent building construction (n = 5). Thorough investigations are mandatory to identify healthcare-associated mucormycosis, notably in neonatology, hematological, and transplantation units.

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