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Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012 Mar;21(3):487-96. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0970. Epub 2012 Jan 13.

Tumor suppressor function of PGP9.5 is associated with epigenetic regulation in prostate cancer--novel predictor of biochemical recurrence after radical surgery.

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Department of Urology, Shimane University School of Medicine, Izumo, Shimane, Japan.



The expression level of protein G product 9.5 (PGP9.5) is downregulated because of promoter CpG hypermethylation in several tumors. We speculated that impaired regulation of PGP9.5 through epigenetic pathways is associated with the pathogenesis of prostate cancer.


CpG methylation of the PGP9.5 gene was analyzed in cultured prostate cancer cell lines, 226 localized prostate cancer samples from radical prostatectomy cases, and 80 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) tissues.


Following 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidune treatment, increased PGP9.5 mRNA transcript expression was found in the LNCaP and PC3 cell lines. With bisulfite DNA sequencing, partial methylation of the PGP9.5 promoter was shown in LNCaP whereas complete methylation was found in PC3 cells. After transfection of PGP9.5 siRNA, cell viability was significantly accelerated in LNCaP but not in PC3 cells as compared with control siRNA transfection. Promoter methylation of PGP9.5 was extremely low in only one of 80 BPH tissues, whereas it was found in 37 of 226 prostate cancer tissues. Expression of the mRNA transcript of PGP9.5 was significantly lower in methylation (+) than methylation (-) prostate cancer tissues. Multivariate analysis of biochemical recurrence (BCR) after an radical prostatectomy revealed pT category and PGP9.5 methylation as prognostically relevant. Further stratification with the pT category in addition to methylation status identified a stepwise reduction of BCR-free probability.


This is the first clinical and comprehensive study of inactivation of the PGP9.5 gene via epigenetic pathways in primary prostate cancer.


CpG methylation of PGP9.5 in primary prostate cancer might become useful as a molecular marker for early clinical prediction of BCR after radical prostatectomy.

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