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AIDS Behav. 2013 Jan;17(1):142-7. doi: 10.1007/s10461-011-0124-7.

Association between use of specific drugs and antiretroviral adherence: findings from MACH 14.

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Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.


To determine the association between individual substances of abuse and antiretroviral adherence, analyses require a large sample assessed using electronic data monitoring (EDM). In this analysis, EDM data from 1,636 participants in 12 US adherence-focused studies were analyzed to determine the associations between recent use of various substances and adherence during the preceding 4 weeks. In bivariate analyses comparing adherence among patients who had used a specific substance to those who had not, adherence was significantly lower among those who had recently used cocaine, other stimulants or heroin but not among those who had used cannabis or alcohol. In multivariate analyses controlling for sociodemographics, amount of alcohol use and recent use of any alcohol, cocaine, other stimulants and heroin each was significantly negatively associated with adherence. The significant associations of cocaine, other stimulants, heroin, and alcohol use with adherence suggest that these are important substances to target with adherence-focused interventions.

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