Send to

Choose Destination
Heart Rhythm. 2012 Jun;9(6):953-60. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2012.01.010. Epub 2012 Jan 11.

Ranolazine stabilizes cardiac ryanodine receptors: a novel mechanism for the suppression of early afterdepolarization and torsades de pointes in long QT type 2.

Author information

Department of Bioengineering, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.



Ranolazine (Ran) is known to inhibit multiple targets, including the late Na(+)current, the rapid delayed rectifying K(+)current, the L-type Ca(2+)current, and fatty acid metabolism. Functionally, Ran suppresses early afterdepolarization (EADs) and torsades de pointes (TdP) in drug-induced long QT type 2 (LQT2) presumably by decreasing intracellular [Na(+)](i) and Ca(2+)overload. However, simulations of EADs in LQT2 failed to predict their suppression by Ran.


To elucidate the mechanism(s) whereby Ran alters cardiac action potentials (APs) and cytosolic Ca(2+)transients and suppresses EADs and TdP in LQT2.


The known effects of Ran were included in simulations (Shannon and Mahajan models) of rabbit ventricular APs and Ca(2+)transients in control and LQT2 models and compared with experimental optical mapping data from Langendorff rabbit hearts treated with E4031 (0.5 μM) to block the rapid delayed rectifying K(+)current. Direct effects of Ran on cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2) were investigated in single channels and changes in Ca(2+)-dependent high-affinity ryanodine binding.


Ran (10 μM) alone prolonged action potential durations (206 ± 4.6 to 240 ± 7.8 ms; P <0.05); E4031 prolonged action potential durations (204 ± 6 to 546 ± 35 ms; P <0.05) and elicited EADs and TdP that were suppressed by Ran (10 μM; n = 7 of 7 hearts). Simulations (Shannon but not Mahajan model) closely reproduced experimental data except for EAD suppression by Ran. Ran reduced open probability (P(o)) of RyR2 (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 10 ± 3 μM; n = 7) in bilayers and shifted half maximal effective concentration for Ca(2+)-dependent ryanodine binding from 0.42 ± 0.02 to 0.64 ± 0.02 μM with 30 μM Ran.


Ran reduces P(o) of RyR2, desensitizes Ca(2+)-dependent RyR2 activation, and inhibits Ca(i) oscillations, which represents a novel mechanism for its suppression of EADs and TdP.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center