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Ann Thorac Surg. 2012 Apr;93(4):1331-9. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.06.107. Epub 2012 Jan 14.

Large-animal models of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

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Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 800 Rose St, MN 265, Lexington, KY 40536-0298, USA.


Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by an acute inflammatory response that compromises alveolar-capillary membrane integrity. Clinical symptoms include refractory hypoxemia, noncardiogenic edema, and decreased lung compliance. The purpose of this review is to summarize the different ARDS large-animal models in terms of similarity to the clinical disease and underlying pathophysiology. The repeated lavage, oleic acid, endotoxin, and smoke/burn ARDS models will be discussed in this review. While each model has significant benefits, none is without weaknesses. Thus, the choice of large-animal ARDS model must be carefully considered based upon the study focus and investigative team experience.

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