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Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2012 Jan;15(1):41-55, v-vi. doi: 10.1016/j.cvex.2011.11.004. Epub 2011 Dec 21.

Pathology of mycobacteriosis in birds.

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Avian Pathology, California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System-Tulare Branch, University of California, Davis, Tulare, CA 93274, USA.


Avian mycobacteriosis is a disease that affects companion, captive exotic, wild, and domestic birds. The disease in birds is generally caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp avium but more than 10 other species of mycobacteria infect birds. Oral route of infection appears to be the primary mode of transmission. In some cases, the extensive involvement of the respiratory system suggests an airborne mode of transmission. Molecular diagnostic techniques have improved the ability to confirm the disease. Avian mycobacteriosis is an important veterinary and economic risk in birds and mammals. Exposure of humans to infected birds may cause a zoonotic infection.

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