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Biochemistry. 1990 Jul 31;29(30):7095-101.

Design and characterization of hirulogs: a novel class of bivalent peptide inhibitors of thrombin.

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1
Biogen Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142.

Abstract

A novel class of synthetic peptides has been designed that inhibit the thrombin catalytic site and exhibit specificity for the anion-binding exosite (ABE) of alpha-thrombin. These peptides, called "hirulogs", consist of (i) an active-site specificity sequence with a restricted Arg-Pro scissile bond, (ii) a polymeric linker of glycyl residues from 6 to 18 A in length, and (iii) an ABE recognition sequence such as that in the hirudin C-terminus. Hirulog-1 ([D-Phe)-Pro-Arg-Pro-(Gly)4-Asn-Gly-Asp-Phe-Glu-Glu-Ile- Pro-Glu-Tyr-Leu] inhibits the thrombin-catalyzed hydrolysis of a tripeptide p-nitroanilide substrate with Ki = 2.3 nM. In contrast, the synthetic C-terminal hirudin peptide S-Hir53-64, which binds to the thrombin ABE, blocked the fibrinogen clotting activity of the enzyme with Ki = 144 nM but failed to inhibit the hydrolysis of p-nitroanilide substrates at concentrations as high as 1 mM. In addition, the pentapeptide (D-Phe)-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gly, which comprises the catalytic-site inhibitor moiety of hirulog-1, was determined to have a Ki for thrombin inhibition greater than 2 microM. Hirulog-1, but not S-Hir53-64, was found to inhibit the incorporation of [14C]diisopropyl fluorophosphate in thrombin. Hirulog-1 appears specific for thrombin as it lacks inhibitory activities toward human factor Xa, human plasmin, and bovine trypsin at inhibitor:enzyme concentrations 3 orders of magnitude higher than those required to inhibit thrombin. The optimal inhibitory activity of hirulog-1 depends upon all three components of its structure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

PMID:
2223763
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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