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Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2012 Jan;23(1):44-7.

Tuberculous peritonitis associated with peritoneal dialysis.

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1
Department of Internal Medicine, Sheikh Khalifa Medical City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. n4alw@yahoo.com

Abstract

Even though rare, tuberculous peritonitis (TBP) in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is a perilous condition. Physicians worry about continuing treatment of their patients, whether to continue this modality of dialysis or switch to hemodialysis. A retrospective cohort study of 89 patients undergoing CAPD over a 12-year period was carried out for any episode of peritonitis with the objectives to find out the incidence of TBP in these patients, evaluation of patients' 3-year survival, possibility of retention of Tenckhoff catheter, and modality of dialysis post-infection. One hundred and three episodes of peritonitis occurred in our patients. Most of them were bacterial and occasionally fungal. We identified four cases of TBP, with one patient having concurrent bacterial infection in the peritoneal fluid. The clinical presentation was insidious with cloudy fluid in all cases. The diagnosis was established by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique in one case, by positive peritoneal fluid culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in two cases, and clinically in the fourth one that responded well to anti-tuberculous therapy. All four patients survived their mycobacterial infection. Removal of catheter was necessary in all four patients and all were converted to hemodialysis. Three patients remained on hemodialysis thereafter, and one patient had to be re-implanted with a new catheter and was restarted on CAPD. TBP in patients undergoing CAPD in Jeddah remains a real concern, especially with the evidence of high prevalence of tuberculosis and with the emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis. We recommend early initiation of anti-tuberculous therapy and removal of the Tenckhoff catheter for better survival. Most of these patients probably will require conversion to hemodialysis, but in a selected few CAPD can be restarted.

PMID:
22237217
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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