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Psychiatr Pol. 2011 Jul-Aug;45(4):495-504.

[Results of the Benton Visual Retention Test and the Bender Visual--Motor Gestalt Test among patients suffer from depressive disorders and organic depressive disorders].

[Article in Polish]

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Klinika Psychiatrii Dorosłych UM w Łodzi.



The comorbidity of depression and dementia has been extensively studied. Four main hypotheses have been suggested to explain the relationship between depression and dementia: 1. depression may be a psychological reaction to perceived cognitive decline, 2. depression may be an early symptom of dementia, 3. depression may be an etiologic risk factor for the onset of dementia, and 4. dementia and depression share common risk factors. The objective of this study was to examine the differences between depressive disorders and organic depressive disorders by using two neuropsychological tests.


A sample of 61 persons aged 23-62 years participated in the study. Patients who took part in the investigation were divided into two groups: depressive disorders (DD, n = 30), organic depressive disorders (ODD, n = 31). Cognitive functions were evaluated by the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) and Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test (BVMGT).


Relevant statistical differences among examined group were observed: in BVRT correct answers (p = 0.006), errors (p < 0.001); in BVMGT: (p < 0.001). DD patients achieved higher results in psychological test than ODD patients. DD group (average) in BVRT: correct answers (-1.33), errors (2.31); BVMGT (average): (50.37). ODD group (average) in BVRT: correct answers (-2.71), errors (5.81); BVMGT (average): (72.01).


Patients with organic depressive disorders achieved significantly lower results than patients with depressive disorders in BVRT and BVMGT.

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