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Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment. 2011 Oct-Dec;10(4):487-95.

Evaluation of the mineral composition of breadstuff and frequency its consumption.

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Department of Bromatology and Food Physiology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Lublin, Poland.



The aim of the study was to assess some selected minerals (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn) in different types of breadstuff. Moreover, the frequency of breadstuff consumption was determined in a selected group of students at one of Lublin universities.


The material for the study was breadstuff available on the consumer market, produced from wheat and rye flour, of varied degree of grinding. In the samples the content of dry matter, crude ash and minerals (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn) was determined. A questionnaire investigation was performed in a group of 100 university students in Lublin. The questionnaire included questions which were helpful in determining the frequency of the consumed breadstuff.


The content of mineral elements in breadstuff depended on its recipe's composition and their higher share was noted in rye and mixed-flour bread. Whole wheat bread was richer in minerals in comparison with white bread. Assuming that a statistical Pole consumes daily 166 g of bread, it may be calculated that the men consumes daily with bread 512 mg of P (73% of RDA) and 0.7 mg of Cu (ca. 78% of RDA), ca. 20 mg of Ca (1.6-2.0% of AI), 93 mg of Mg (ca. 22-30% of RDA), 602 mg of Na (40-50% of AI), 183 mg of K (3.9% of AI), 4.5 mg of Fe (25-45% of RDA) and 3 mg of Zn (29-40% of RDA).


Bread is an important source of minerals, especially phosphorus and copper. Among students an excessive consumption of white bread should be noted contrasting with a low intake of whole wheat or whole meal bread.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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