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J Biomed Sci. 2012 Jan 9;19:5. doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-5.

The role of indoleamine 2, 3 dioxygenase in regulating host immunity to leishmania infection.

Author information

1
Georgia Health Sciences University, Medical College of Georgia, Department of Pediatrics, Hematology/oncology Section, Augusta, Georgia 30912, USA. lmakala@georgiahealth.edu

Abstract

Pathogen persistence in immune-competent hosts represents an immunological paradox. Increasing evidence suggests that some pathogens, such as, Leishmania major (L. major) have evolved strategies and mechanisms that actively suppress host adaptive immunity. If this notion is correct conventional vaccination therapies may be ineffective in enhancing host immunity, unless natural processes that suppress host immunity are also targeted therapeutically. The key problem is that the basis of pathogen persistence in immune-competent individuals is unknown, despite decades of intense research. This fact, coupled with poor health care and a dearth of effective treatments means that these diseases will remain a scourge on humans unless a better understanding of why the immune system tolerates such infections emerges from research. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been shown to act as a molecular switch regulating host responses, and IDO inhibitor drugs shown to possess potential in enhancing host immunity to established leishmania infections. It is hoped that this review will help stimulate and help generate critical new knowledge pertaining to the IDO mechanism and how to exploit it to suppress T cell mediated immunity, thus offer an innovative approach to studying the basis of chronic leishmania infection in mice.

PMID:
22230608
PMCID:
PMC3295648
DOI:
10.1186/1423-0127-19-5
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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