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Curr Opin Urol. 2012 Mar;22(2):139-43. doi: 10.1097/MOU.0b013e32834fc36a.

Risk reduction strategy for radiation exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

Author information

1
Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA. michael.lipkin@duke.edu

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

To discuss the risk of radiation exposure to patients with nephrolithiasis. To review the risk factors for increased radiation exposure to patients during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) from fluoroscopy. To review the techniques to reduce patient radiation doses during PNL.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Patients with nephrolithiasis are at risk for significant radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging. Fluoroscopy used during surgical treatment of nephrolithiasis also contributes to patient radiation exposure. On average, PNL with fluoroscopy exposes patients to more radiation than a noncontrast computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis. Risk factors for increased radiation during PNL include obesity, larger stone size and increased access tracts. Following the principles of As Low As Reasonably Achievable, use of air instead of contrast for retrograde pyelogram and use of ultrasound all reduce radiation exposure during PNL.

SUMMARY:

It is important to be aware of the amount of radiation patients with nephrolithiasis receive. These patients are at risk for multiple imaging studies and multiple procedures during their lifetime. Whenever possible, the techniques outlined in this review should be implemented to reduce the amount of radiation to which patients are exposed during PNL.

PMID:
22228106
DOI:
10.1097/MOU.0b013e32834fc36a
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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