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J Infect. 2012 Apr;64(4):409-16. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2011.12.012. Epub 2011 Dec 23.

Hcv coinfection, an important risk factor for hepatotoxicity in pregnant women starting antiretroviral therapy.

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Erasmus University Medical Centre, 's Gravendijkwal 230, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.



This retrospective cohort study evaluated the risk of hepatotoxicity in HIV-1 positive pregnant and non-pregnant women starting combined ART.


Data were used from the ATHENA observational cohort. The study population consisted of HIV-1 infected, therapy naïve, pregnant and non-pregnant women, followed between January 1997 and February 2008. Demographic, treatment and pregnancy related data were collected. Risk of hepatotoxicity was determined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Analyses were adjusted for age, region of origin, baseline HIV-RNA levels and CD4 cell counts, cART regimen and hepatitis B and C coinfection. ALT and AST values of more than 5 times ULN were considered as hepatotoxicity.


Four-hundred and twenty-five pregnant and 1121 non-pregnant women were included. Independent risk factors of hepatotoxicity in all women were the presence of detectable HCV RNA (OR 5.48, 95% CI 2.25-13.38, p<0.001) and NVP use (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.54-4.55, p<0.001). Stratified for pregnancy, the adjusted risk of hepatotoxicity was significantly associated with HCV coinfection only during pregnancy (OR 23.53, 95% CI 4.69-118.01, p<0.001). NVP use is related to hepatotoxicity in pregnant (OR 5.26, 95% CI 1.61-16.67, p<0.005) as well as in non-pregnant women (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.11-4.00, p=0.02).


HCV coinfection and NVP use are associated with a higher risk of cART induced hepatotoxicity in pregnant women.

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