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Aquat Toxicol. 2012 Mar;109:158-65. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.12.009. Epub 2011 Dec 16.

Selenocompounds in juvenile white sturgeon: evaluating blood, tissue, and urine selenium concentrations after a single oral dose.

Author information

1
Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

Abstract

Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for all vertebrates, however, at environmental relevant levels, it is a potent toxin. In the San Francisco Bay-Delta, white sturgeon, an ancient Chondrostean fish of high ecological and economic value, is at risk to Se exposure. The present study is the first to examine the uptake, distribution, and excretion of various selenocompounds in white sturgeon. A combined technique of stomach intubation, dorsal aorta cannulation, and urinary catheterization was utilized, in this study, to characterize the short-term effects of Se in the forms of sodium-selenate (Selenate), sodium-selenite (Selenite), selenocystine (SeCys), l-selenomethionine (SeMet), Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine (MSeCys), and selenoyeast (SeYeast). An ecologically relevant dose of Se (∼500 μg/kg body weight) was intubated into groups of 5 juvenile white sturgeon. Blood and urine samples were repeatedly collected over the 48 h post intubation period and fish were sacrificed for Se tissue concentration and distribution at 48 h. The tissue concentration and distribution, blood concentrations, and urinary elimination of Se significantly differ (p ≤ 0.05) among forms. In general, organic selenocompounds maintain higher blood concentrations, with SeMeCys maintaining the highest area under the curve (66.3 ± 8.7 and 9.3 ± 1.0 μg h/ml) and maximum Se concentration in blood (2.3 ± 0.2 and 0.4 ± 0.2 μg/ml) in both the protein and non-protein bound fractions, respectively. Selenate, however, did not result in significant increase of Se concentration, compared with the control, in the protein-bound blood fraction. Regardless of source, Se is preferentially distributed into metabolically active tissues, with the SeMet treated fish achieving the highest concentration in most tissues. In contrast, Selenite has very similar blood concentrations and tissue distribution profile to SeCys and SeYeast. From blood and tissue Se concentrations, Selenate is not stored in blood, but taken up rapidly by the liver and white muscle. Urinary elimination of Se is form dependent and peaks between 3 and 12 h post intubation. A basic understanding of the overall Se absorption, distribution, and elimination is provided through monitoring tissue Se concentrations, however, conclusions regarding to the dynamics and the specific processes of Se metabolism can only be inferred, in the absence of kinetic information.

PMID:
22226619
DOI:
10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.12.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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