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Curr Opin Microbiol. 2012 Apr;15(2):140-6. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2011.12.008. Epub 2012 Jan 5.

You've come a long way: c-di-GMP signaling.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. hs293@cornell.edu

Abstract

Cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a common, bacterial second messenger that regulates diverse cellular processes in bacteria. Opposing activities of diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs) control c-di-GMP homeostasis in the cell. Many microbes have a large number of genes encoding DGCs and PDEs that are predicted to be part of c-di-GMP signaling networks. Other building blocks of these networks are c-di-GMP receptors which sense the cellular levels of the dinucleotide. C-di-GMP receptors form a more diverse family, including various transcription factors, PilZ domains, degenerate DGCs or PDEs, and riboswitches. Recent studies revealing the molecular basis of c-di-GMP signaling mechanisms enhanced our understanding of how this molecule controls downstream biological processes and how c-di-GMP signaling specificity is achieved.

PMID:
22226607
PMCID:
PMC3320698
DOI:
10.1016/j.mib.2011.12.008
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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