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Vet Microbiol. 2012 May 25;157(1-2):69-77. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.12.014. Epub 2011 Dec 16.

Salmonella flagellin enhances mucosal immunity of avian influenza vaccine in chickens.

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College of Veterinary Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912, Taiwan, ROC.


Flagellin, a bioactive Toll-like receptor (TLR) 5 ligand, may trigger the innate immunity that in turn is important for subsequent adaptive immune responses. In the present study, the adjuvant effects of the monomeric and polymeric forms of Salmonella flagellin (mFliC and pFliC, respectively) were examined in specific-pathogen free (SPF) chickens immunized intramuscularly (i.m.) or intranasally (i.n.) with formalin-inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) H5N2 vaccines. Results showed that mFliC cooperating with the 64CpG adjuvant significantly induced influenza-specific antibody titers of plasma IgA in the i.m.-vaccinated animals. The nasal IgA levels in the i.n.-mFliC-coadministrated AIV vaccinated chickens were significantly elevated compared to levels observed in the control group (H5N2 vaccine alone). The pFliC cooperating with the 64CpG adjuvant significantly enhanced cell proliferation of splenocytes in the i.m.-vaccinated animals. TLR3 and TLR5 expressions were activated by flagellin stimulation in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that flagellin can be used as an adjuvant in an AIV H5N2 vaccine, especially for mucosal immunity.

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