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Eur J Clin Invest. 2012 Jul;42(7):729-37. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2011.02638.x. Epub 2012 Jan 7.

eNOS [Glu298Asp] polymorphism, erectile function and ocular pressure in type 2 diabetes.

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1
Service d'Endocrinologie et Nutrition, Université catholique de Louvain, avenue Hippocrate UCL 54, Brussels, Belgium. michel.hermans@diab.ucl.ac.be

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

  Imbalance in nitric oxide (NO), an atheroprotective vasodilator, is associated with endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetic complications. Various endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) polymorphisms may affect NO bioavailability, thereby promoting adverse cardiovascular milieu.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

  To analyze glucose homeostasis, cardiometabolic phenotype, and micro- and macroangiopathies associated with eNOS G894T gene polymorphism in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). 210 T2DM outpatients (mean age (1SD) 70 (12); diabetes duration 19 (9) years; males:females 64:36%; metabolic syndrome 87%) had insulin sensitivity and b-cell function modelled with HOMA, alongside routine laboratory and endothelin measurements.

RESULTS:

  GG, GT and TT genotypes represented 48% (n = 100), 39% (n = 83) and 13% (n = 27). Overall microangiopathy (retinopathy, neuropathy and/or nephropathy) was present in 74%, and overall macroangiopathy (CAD, PAD and/or TIA/stroke) in 45%. The TT genotype did not translate into a more severe vascular phenotype, as TT patients carrying the proposed risk genotype did not suffer a higher rate of micro- and macrovascular complications. On the other hand, erectile dysfunction, present in 60% of males (n = 135), was much more prevalent in TT males: 57% [GG & GT] vs. 93% in TT (p 0.0088). Ocular hypertension/glaucoma frequency (18% of the whole group) was also markedly different, albeit in opposing directions, between eNOS G894T gene polymorphism subgroups: 21% [GG & GT] vs. 0% prevalence (TT; p 0.0057).

CONCLUSIONS:

  eNOS G894T gene polymorphism in homozygous TT carriers translates into opposing effects on erectile function (detrimental) and ocular hypertension/glaucoma (protective) in T2DM, without affecting glucose homeostasis determinants or the presence of micro- and macrovascular complications.

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