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Annu Rev Immunol. 2012;30:759-95. doi: 10.1146/annurev-immunol-020711-074937. Epub 2012 Jan 6.

The microbiome in infectious disease and inflammation.

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1
Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. kenya@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp

Abstract

The mammalian alimentary tract harbors hundreds of species of commensal microorganisms (microbiota) that intimately interact with the host and provide it with genetic, metabolic, and immunological attributes. Recent reports have indicated that the microbiota composition and its collective genomes (microbiome) are major factors in predetermining the type and robustness of mucosal immune responses. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of host-microbiota interactions and their effect on the health and disease susceptibility of the host.

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