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Syst Biol. 2012 May;61(3):426-42. doi: 10.1093/sysbio/syr123. Epub 2012 Jan 5.

Miocene dispersal drives island radiations in the palm tribe Trachycarpeae (Arecaceae).

Author information

1
Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1878, USA. cbacon@rams.colostate.edu

Abstract

The study of three island groups of the palm tribe Trachycarpeae (Arecaceae/Palmae) permits both the analysis of each independent radiation and comparisons across the tribe to address general processes that drive island diversification. Phylogenetic relationships of Trachycarpeae were inferred from three plastid and three low-copy nuclear genes. The incongruent topological position of Brahea in CISP5 was hypothesized to be caused by a gene duplication event and was addressed using uninode coding. The resulting phylogenetic trees were well-resolved and the genera were all highly supported except for Johannesteijsmannia and Serenoa. Divergence time analysis estimated the stem of the tribe to be approximately 86 Ma and the crown to be 38 Ma, indicating that significant extinction may have occurred along this branch. Historical biogeographic analysis suggested that Trachycarpeae are of southern North American, Central American, or Caribbean origin and supports previous hypotheses of a Laurasian origin. The biogeography and disjunctions within the tribe were interpreted with respect to divergence times, the fossil record, and geological factors such as the formation of the Greater Antilles--Aves Ridge, the Bering and the North Atlantic land bridges, tectonic movement in Southeast Asia, climatic shifts between the Eocene and Pliocene, and volcanism in the Pacific basin. In considering the three major island radiations within Trachycarpeae, Miocene dispersal appears to have been the driving force in allopatric speciation and is highlighted here as an emerging pattern across the tree of life.

PMID:
22223444
DOI:
10.1093/sysbio/syr123
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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