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Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Mar 15;302(6):E654-65. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00373.2011. Epub 2012 Jan 3.

12/15-Lipoxygenase signaling in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

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Dept. of Internal Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA 23507, USA.


Central obesity is associated with chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The 12/15-lipoxygenase enzyme (12/15-LO) promotes inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose and peripheral tissues. Given that obesity is associated with ER stress and 12/15-LO is expressed in adipose tissue, we determined whether 12/15-LO could mediate ER stress signals. Addition of 12/15-LO lipid products 12(S)-HETE and 12(S)-HPETE to differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes induced expression and activation of ER stress markers, including BiP, XBP-1, p-PERK, and p-IRE1α. The ER stress inducer, tunicamycin, upregulated ER stress markers in adipocytes with concomitant 12/15-LO activation. Addition of a 12/15-LO inhibitor, CDC, to tunicamycin-treated adipocytes attenuated the ER stress response. Furthermore, 12/15-LO-deficient adipocytes exhibited significantly decreased tunicamycin-induced ER stress. 12/15-LO action involves upregulation of interleukin-12 (IL-12) expression. Tunicamycin significantly upregulated IL-12p40 expression in adipocytes, and IL-12 addition increased ER stress gene expression; conversely, LSF, an IL-12 signaling inhibitor, and an IL-12p40-neutralizing antibody attenuated tunicamycin-induced ER stress. Isolated adipocytes and liver from 12/15-LO-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet revealed a decrease in spliced XBP-1 expression compared with wild-type C57BL/6 mice on a high-fat diet. Furthermore, pancreatic islets from 12/15-LO-deficient mice showed reduced high-fat diet-induced ER stress genes compared with wild-type mice. These data suggest that 12/15-LO activity participates in ER stress in adipocytes, pancreatic islets, and liver. Therefore, reduction of 12/15-LO activity or expression could provide a new therapeutic target to reduce ER stress and downstream inflammation linked to obesity.

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