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Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2012;27(1):2-8. Epub 2012 Jan 3.

The impact of pharmacogenomics research on drug development.

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Clinical Data Science Department, Japan Development Center, Pharmaceutical Development Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Ltd., Osaka, Japan.


Over the last two decades, identification of polymorphisms that influence human diseases has begun to have an impact on the provision of medical care. The promise of genetics lies in its ability to provide insight into an individual's susceptibility to disease, the likely nature of the disease and the most appropriate therapy. For much of its history, pharmacogenomics (PGx) has been limited to relatively simple phenotypes such as plasma drug levels. Progress in genetic technologies has broadened the scope of exploratory PGx and its implementation into safety and efficacy studies, impacting a broad spectrum of drug discovery and development activities. Recent PGx data show the ability of this approach to generate information that can be applied to target selection, dose selection, efficacy determination and safety issues. This in turn will lead to significant opportunities to influence the approaches to drug discovery, clinical development and the probability of success. In particular, adverse drug reactions are critical issues for pharmaceutical companies and for the patients who will benefit from these new medicines. In this review, we outline current progress in PGx, using examples to highlight the influence of polymorphisms, and discuss contemporary challenges for both researchers and clinicians.

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