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Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011 Dec;1245:17-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06334.x.

Best practices for the use of animals in toxicological research and testing.

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National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.


Animal models serve an important role in assessing preclinical safety and efficacy of new medicines and vaccines; however, such assessments can involve significant pain and distress and large numbers of animals. Best practice approaches seek to enhance animal well-being, minimize or avoid pain and distress, and use fewer animals. Advances in science and technology are providing opportunities for improved mechanism-based models and integrated safety assessments that will support improved animal welfare and reduce animal use.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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