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J Vet Intern Med. 2012 Jan-Feb;26(1):85-92. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.00859.x. Epub 2011 Dec 23.

Occlusion devices and approaches in canine patent ductus arteriosus: comparison of outcomes.

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William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.



A comparison of transvascular occlusion methods for closing patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in dogs has not been done.


To determine if clinically important differences exist between the approaches and devices currently used.


A total of 112 client-owned dogs with left-to-right shunting PDA.


Retrospective study. Records from dogs that underwent attempted transvascular PDA occlusion from January 2006 to December 2009 were examined. Dogs were placed into 4 groups: Group 1: Amplatz Canine Duct Occluder (ACDO) (transarterial) - 36 dogs; Group 2: Gianturco or MReye Flipper Detachable Embolization (Flipper) coil (transarterial) - 38 dogs; Group 3: Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP) (transarterial) - 23 dogs; Group 4: Flipper coil (transvenous) - 15 dogs.


The overall success rate of the procedures was high (92%) with comparable success rates among groups (87-97%). There were significantly fewer complications (P < .0001) in dogs receiving an ACDO than in the remaining groups (3% for ACDO versus 26-33% for the other groups). Fluoroscopy time for the transvenous method was significantly longer (median, 13 minutes) than for the other groups (median, 6 minutes) (P < .0001). Severity of residual flow 24 hours postprocedure was significantly less in the ACDO group than in the remaining groups (P = .0001-.05).


The ACDO appears superior in ease of use, complication rate, and completeness of occlusion. The remaining limiting factor with this device is patient size. Until a smaller ACDO device is marketed, coils remain the only choice for interventional closure in very small dogs.

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