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Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012 Mar;76(3):327-33. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2011.12.002. Epub 2011 Dec 29.

Symptoms at presentation in children with sleep-related disorders.

Author information

1
Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital and University of Helsinki, Finland. katja.liukkonen@hus.fi

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the link between sleep-disordered breathing and cognitive function in children. To identify correlations among polysomnography, upper respiratory infections, or cephalometric as well as rhinometric measures.

METHODS:

This study is based on a questionnaire survey of snoring in a population cohort of 2100 children. Altogether, 44 snorers and 51 non-snorers participated in this community based clinical study. All children underwent polysomnography, cephalometry and rhinometric measurements. In addition, a standardized test of intelligence (WPPSI-R), a neuropsychological test battery (NEPSY) and a parental questionnaire on behavioral symptoms (CBCL) were administered.

RESULTS:

Frequently snoring children scored lower in Language functions (Comprehension of Instructions, P=0.01; Speeded naming, P=0.007) and had more internalizing problems, P=0.04 than did the non-snoring group. However, the polysomnography parameters of these snoring children revealed no major sleep-related breathing disorder. OAHI, mean lowest SpO(2) and respiratory effort correlated with Auditory Attention (P<0.05), Body Part Naming (P<0.05) and Memory (P<0.05). Tonsillar size correlated with OAHI (P<0.01) and respiratory effort (P=0.01) and respiratory airflow (P<0.01). In cephalometry, the minimal distance from velum to posterior wall was shorter showing the shorter length among snorers than non-snorers, 5.5mm vs. 6.6mm, respectively (P<0.05). Recurrent upper respirataory infections (URIs) were common among the snoring than non-snoring children (P=0.01). Children suffering recurrent URIs have more somatic complaints than children without recurrent URIs (P<0.01).

CONCLUSIONS:

Snoring children with apparently normal and/or no obstructive apnea, hypopnea, or marked SpO(2) desaturations appear to suffer impairment in neurocognitive and behavioral functions compared to non-snoring children. These snoring children did not reveal any major abnormalities of polysomnographic parameters, such as sleep-related breathing disorder, including partial upper airway obstruction. Polysomnographic parameters also correlated poorly with neurocognitive test results in these snoring children. The correlations between polysomnography and upper respiratory infections, with cephalometric and rhinometric measures, were also poor.

PMID:
22209420
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijporl.2011.12.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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