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Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012 Aug 1;83(5):1624-32. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.10.009. Epub 2011 Dec 30.

First clinical release of an online, adaptive, aperture-based image-guided radiotherapy strategy in intensity-modulated radiotherapy to correct for inter- and intrafractional rotations of the prostate.

Author information

1
University Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Salzburg, Austria. h.deutschmann@salk.at

Abstract

PURPOSE:

We developed and evaluated a correction strategy for prostate rotations using direct adaptation of segments in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).

METHOD AND MATERIALS:

Implanted fiducials (four gold markers) were used to determine interfractional translations, rotations, and dilations of the prostate. We used hybrid imaging: The markers were automatically detected in two pretreatment planar X-ray projections; their actual position in three-dimensional space was reconstructed from these images at first. The structure set comprising prostate, seminal vesicles, and adjacent rectum wall was transformed accordingly in 6 degrees of freedom. Shapes of IMRT segments were geometrically adapted in a class solution forward-planning approach, derived within seconds on-site and treated immediately. Intrafractional movements were followed in MV electronic portal images captured on the fly.

RESULTS:

In 31 of 39 patients, for 833 of 1013 fractions (supine, flat couch, knee support, comfortably full bladder, empty rectum, no intraprostatic marker migrations >2 mm of more than one marker), the online aperture adaptation allowed safe reduction of margins clinical target volume-planning target volume (prostate) down to 5 mm when only interfractional corrections were applied: Dominant L-R rotations were found to be 5.3° (mean of means), standard deviation of means ±4.9°, maximum at 30.7°. Three-dimensional vector translations relative to skin markings were 9.3 ± 4.4 mm (maximum, 23.6 mm). Intrafractional movements in 7.7 ± 1.5 min (maximum, 15.1 min) between kV imaging and last beam's electronic portal images showed further L-R rotations of 2.5° ± 2.3° (maximum, 26.9°), and three-dimensional vector translations of 3.0 ±3.7 mm (maximum, 10.2 mm). Addressing intrafractional errors could further reduce margins to 3 mm.

CONCLUSION:

We demonstrated the clinical feasibility of an online adaptive image-guided, intensity-modulated prostate protocol on a standard linear accelerator to correct 6 degrees of freedom of internal organ motion, allowing safe and straightforward implementation of margin reduction and dose escalation.

PMID:
22209149
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.10.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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