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Int Immunol. 2012 Mar;24(3):137-46. doi: 10.1093/intimm/dxr111. Epub 2011 Dec 29.

Dynamic regulation of Th17 differentiation by oxygen concentrations.

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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.


Naive CD4(+) T cells are activated by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and differentiate into distinct types of helper T (T(h)) cells in the lymph node or spleen. Oxygen (O(2)) tension is generally low in these secondary lymphoid tissues compared with the bloodstream or atmosphere. However, the effect of changes in O(2) concentration on the differentiation of T(h) cells remains unclear. Here, we established a novel model of T(h)-cell differentiation, which mimics physiological O(2) conditions. We primed naive CD4(+) T cells under 5% O(2), which has been observed in the lymph node or spleen and reoxygenated under normoxia that mimicked the O(2) concentration in blood. In this model, the differentiation of T(h)17 cells, but not T(h)1 or iTreg cells, was enhanced. Under the condition of 5% O(2), mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) was activated and led to the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in T(h)17 cells. The activation of mTORC1 and the acceleration of T(h)17-cell differentiation, which occurred when cells were primed under 5% O(2), were not observed in the absence of HIF-1α but were accelerated in the absence of von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (vHL), a factor critical for HIF-1α degradation. Thus, a positive feedback loop between HIF-1α and mTORC1 induced by hypoxia followed by reoxygenation accelerates T(h)17-cell differentiation.

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