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J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Feb;129(2):321-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2011.11.039. Epub 2011 Dec 28.

Fungal disease of the nose and paranasal sinuses.

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Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Coccidioidomycosis Serology Laboratory, University of California-Davis, Davis, Calif 95616, USA.


Fungal infections of the nose and paranasal sinuses represent a spectrum of diseases ranging from colonization to invasive rhinosinusitis. Clinical manifestations are largely dependent on the immune status of the host, and given the ubiquitous nature of these organisms, exposure is unavoidable. Noninvasive disease includes asymptomatic fungal colonization, fungus balls, and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. Invasive disease includes indolent chronic rhinosinusitis, granulomatous fungal sinusitis, and acute fulminant fungal rhinosinusitis. A differentiation of these somewhat overlapping syndromes and the disparate treatment regimens required for effective management are the focus of this review.

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