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J Commun Disord. 2012 Mar-Apr;45(2):129-46. doi: 10.1016/j.jcomdis.2011.12.001. Epub 2011 Dec 9.

Research and development on a public attitude instrument for stuttering.

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West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6122, USA.


This paper summarizes research associated with the development of the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S), a survey instrument designed to provide a worldwide standard measure of public attitudes toward stuttering. Pilot studies with early experimental prototypes of the POSHA-S are summarized that relate to questionnaire rating scale prototypes, test-retest reliability, construct validity, item analysis and final item selection, translation to other languages, internal consistency, sampling procedures, manner of administration, and sample size. Future research and public service uses of the POSHA-S are discussed, especially for comparisons using its growing database archive.


Readers of this article should be able to: (1) describe the purposes of the International Project on Attitudes Toward Human Attributes (IPATHA) initiative, (2) describe procedures to determine reliability and validity of the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S), (3) describe factor analysis and other strategies to select items from the POSHA-E1 and POSHA-E2 pilot studies for the final POSHA-S, and (4) describe uses of the POSHA-S database archive in studies of public attitudes toward stuttering.

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