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J Pak Med Assoc. 2011 Jul;61(7):653-8.

Histological pattern of paediatric renal diseases in northern Pakistan.

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Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Post Graduate Medical Institute, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar.



To determine histological spectrum of renal diseases among the paediatric population in the province Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, and to note any change in histological pattern with age and serum creatinine.


This is a retrospective analysis of 415 paediatric renal biopsies performed at the department of nephrology, Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar from 1998-2005. Children from 3 to 15 years of age, having renal disease and indications for biopsy, underwent ultrasound guided percutaneous renal biopsy. Indications included nephrotic syndrome, nephritic/nephrotic syndrome with renal insufficiency and nephrotic syndrome with steroid resistance. Patients with acute or chronic renal failure were not included. The specimens were examined without immunoflorescence, under light microscopy using different staining techniques, Results were analyzed for different age groups, serum creatinine levels and for both male and females with renal disease.


The overall male to female ratio in the study was 1.6: 1. Nephrotic syndrome was most common indication for renal biopsy in 50% of the cases, followed by renal insufficiency (26%) and steroid resistance (24%). In children with primary glomerulonephritis, minimal change disease (MCD) was found to be the most common histological pattern (24.09%), followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), 18.30%; mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (GN) (MsePGN), 17.83%; mesangiocapillary GN (MPGN), 11.08%; post streptococcal proliferative GN (Post. strep GN), 10.60%; membranous GN (MGN), 4.82%; crescentic GN (Cres.GN), 4.34%. Among children with secondary GN, chronic sclerosing GN was found to be most common (1.93%), followed by chronic tubulo interstitial nephritis (Chr.TIN), 1.69% and hypertensive nephropathy (H.Neph), 1.69%; Renal Amyloidosis, 0.96% and Lupus Nephritis III, 0.96%; acute tubular necrosis (ATN), 0.72%; Alport's Syndrome (0.48%). Overall, MCD was the most common histological pattern in all age groups and among children with serum creatinine < 1.2 mg/dll. However, that with serum creatinine between 1.3 to 3 mg/dl, MsePGN was found to be more common. Age turned out to be significant factor, in contrast to serum creatinine, in determining various histological patterns.


This study highlighted the histological patterns of renal disease among pediatric population from northern part of Pakistan. MCD was on the top followed by FSGS, but frequency of MCD was less than cited in earlier studies.

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