Send to

Choose Destination
J Ren Nutr. 2012 Jan;22(1):186-90. doi: 10.1053/j.jrn.2011.10.013.

A brief review of external mass balance and internal calcium redistribution in dialysis patients--is calcium a uremic toxin?

Author information

Research, Renal Research Institute, New York, New York 10128, USA.


Recent debates between 2 schools of thought on calcium mass balance in dialysis patients and its relevance to disease--one emphasizing external calcium mass balance, and the other, internal calcium redistribution--have created controversy. Due to decreased ability to excrete calcium and loss of endocrine function by the kidney, patients suffering from chronic kidney disease, particularly when requiring dialysis, demonstrate varying degrees of positive or negative calcium balance, vitamin D deficiency, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Consequently, patients are prone to bone demineralization, with diminished bone strength, and are thus prone to fractures that substantially worsen morbid outcomes in this population. However, intra- and interdialytic positive calcium mass balance creates complications of a different kind, which include the occurrence of vascular and cardiac disease and reduced survival. This review aims to shed light on the mechanisms of and relationships between external calcium mass balance and internal calcium redistribution and their consequences. It also discusses the potential to improve current regimens by means of diffusive and convective calcium mass transfer for the achievement of neutral calcium mass balance.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center