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J Ren Nutr. 2012 Jan;22(1):102-6. doi: 10.1053/j.jrn.2011.10.032.

Indoxyl sulfate induces nephrovascular senescence.

Author information

1
Department of Advanced Medicine for Uremia, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Japan. tniwa@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

Abstract

Indoxyl sulfate is markedly accumulated in the serum of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The oral sorbent AST-120 reduces serum levels of indoxyl sulfate in CKD patients by adsorbing indole, a precursor of indoxyl sulfate, in the intestine. Indoxyl sulfate is taken up by proximal tubular cells through organic anion transporters (OAT1, OAT3), and it induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) with impairment of cellular antioxidative system. Indoxyl sulfate stimulates progression of CKD by increasing renal expression of profibrotic cytokines such as transforming growth factor beta 1. Further, it promotes the expression of p53 by ROS-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B, thereby accelerating senescence of proximal tubular cells with progression of CKD. Administration of indoxyl sulfate to hypertensive rats reduces renal expression of Klotho and promotes cell senescence, with expression of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, p53, p21, p16, and retinoblastoma protein, accompanied by kidney fibrosis. Indoxyl sulfate downregulates Klotho expression in the kidneys through production of ROS and activation of nuclear factor kappa B in proximal tubular cells. It promotes cell senescence, with expression of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, p53, p21, p16, and retinoblastoma protein, in the aorta of hypertensive rats. It also promotes aortic calcification and aortic wall thickening in hypertensive rats with expression of osteoblast-specific proteins, induces ROS in vascular smooth muscle cells and vascular endothelial cells, stimulates proliferation and osteoblastic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells, and inhibits viability and nitric oxide production of vascular endothelial cells. Thus, indoxyl sulfate accelerates the progression of not only CKD but also of cardiovascular disease by inducing nephrovascular cell senescence.

PMID:
22200425
DOI:
10.1053/j.jrn.2011.10.032
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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