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Fish Physiol Biochem. 2012 Aug;38(4):1029-1034. doi: 10.1007/s10695-011-9587-8. Epub 2011 Dec 24.

Effects of dietary administration of Echinacea purpurea on growth indices and biochemical and hematological indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings.

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Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran.
Berom Aquaculture farm, Lordegan, Iran.
Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, Tonekabon, Iran.
Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Marine Natural Resources, Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, Khorramshahr, Iran.
Department of Nutritional Science, Public Health School, Kermanshah University of Medical Science, Kermanshah, Iran.


This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Echinacea purpurea (EP) on growth and some hematological and blood biochemical indices of rainbow trout fingerlings. A basal diet was supplemented with 0 (control), 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 g EP kg⁻¹ to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish with an initial average weight of approximately 8 g. After 8 weeks of feeding trial, fish fed diets with 0.25 and 0.5 g EP kg⁻¹ showed highest final weight and SGR and fish fed with the control diet indicated the lowest final weight and SGR. There was a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in FCR between the control group and the groups fed with diets of 0.25 and 0.5 g EP kg⁻¹. Biochemical parameters such as serum total protein content, albumin content, globulin content, and albumin/globulin ratio in the fish were evaluated. There were significant differences between hematological parameters including RBC, WBC, HB, lymphocyte, and neutrophil percentage in fish fed with dietary nucleotide compared with control treatment (P < 0.05). The results suggest that EP administration at 0.25 and 0.5 g EP kg⁻¹ exerted positive effects on growth and biochemical and hematological indices in rainbow trout.

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