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Antiviral Res. 2012 Feb;93(2):288-296. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2011.12.008. Epub 2011 Dec 16.

In vitro resistance selections using elvitegravir, raltegravir, and two metabolites of elvitegravir M1 and M4.

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Gilead Sciences, Inc., 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, CA 94404, USA. Electronic address:
Gilead Sciences, Inc., 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, CA 94404, USA.


Elvitegravir is a strand transfer inhibitor of HIV-1 integrase that is currently undergoing phase 3 clinical testing. The two predominant metabolites of elvitegravir, M1 and M4 (elvitegravir hydroxide and elvitegravir glucuronide), have been shown to inhibit HIV-1 integrase in vitro. While they are markedly less potent than elvitegravir and present only at low levels in plasma clinically, we investigated their potential to select for elvitegravir resistance in vitro. Resistance selection experiments using metabolites M1 and M4 led to the development of the previously reported elvitegravir integrase resistance mutations H51Y, T66A, E92G, and S147G, as well as a novel S153F substitution. Additional resistance selection experiments using elvitegravir led to the development of previously reported integrase inhibitor resistance mutations (T66I, F121Y, and S153Y) as well as a novel R263K integrase mutation. Phenotypic analyses of site-directed mutants with these mutations demonstrated broad cross-resistance between elvitegravir and its M1 and M4 metabolites with more limited cross-resistance to the integrase inhibitor raltegravir. Overall, our in vitro studies demonstrate that the resistance profile of the M1 and M4 metabolites of elvitegravir overlaps with that of the parent molecule elvitegravir; as such, their presence at low levels is not considered clinically relevant.

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