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Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012 Feb;62(1):107-14. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2011.12.007. Epub 2011 Dec 14.

Assessing the non-cancer risk for RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling.

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Naval Medical Research Unit-Dayton, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, USA.


RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) is an explosive used in military applications. It has been detected in ground water surrounding US military installations and at manufacturing facilities. RDX has been shown to produce hepatotoxicity, testicular, and neurological effects in animals, the latter also in humans. The current chronic oral reference dose (RfD) of 0.003 mg/kg/day was derived based on prostate effects in rats. Here, we provide a reevaluation of the risk associated with RDX exposure by examining old and new data and using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling approaches. Candidate non-cancer endpoints in rodents were evaluated and the most plausible mode(s) of action were determined. A PBPK model was used to derive appropriate internal doses based on the mode of action, and then a benchmark dose (BMD) and the lower confidence limit on the BMD (BMDL) were determined using these internal doses in animals. Uncertainty factors (UF) were applied to the animal BMDL or no-observed effect level and a human PBPK model was used to determine a human equivalent dose resulting in the candidate RfDs (cRfDs). A proposed chronic RfD of 0.07 mg/kg/day, based on multiple effects observed in rats, was selected from among the cRfDs.

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