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Cardiovasc Psychiatry Neurol. 2011;2011:315068. doi: 10.1155/2011/315068. Epub 2011 Dec 13.

Validation of the Turkish version of the problem areas in diabetes scale.

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Department of Medical Psychology and Neuropsychology, Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic Diseases [CoRPS], Tilburg University, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, The Netherlands.


The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) scale is a widely used self-report measure that can facilitate detection of diabetes-specific emotional distress in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure and validity of the Turkish version of the PAID. A validation study was conducted among 154 patients with insulin-naïve type 2 diabetes. Participants completed the PAID, Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Insulin Treatment Appraisal Scale (ITAS), and World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) questionnaires. Exploratory factor analyses yielded a 2-factor structure, identifying a 15-item "diabetes distress" factor and a 5-item "support-related issues" factor. The total PAID-score and the two dimensions were associated with higher levels of depression and poor emotional well-being. In the present study, the Turkish version of the PAID had satisfactory psychometric properties, however, the factorial structure was found to differ from factor solutions from other countries.

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