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PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e29260. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029260. Epub 2011 Dec 14.

LPA is a chemorepellent for B16 melanoma cells: action through the cAMP-elevating LPA5 receptor.

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Division of Cell Biology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a lipid mediator enriched in serum, stimulates cell migration, proliferation and other functions in many cell types. LPA acts on six known G protein-coupled receptors, termed LPA(1-6), showing both overlapping and distinct signaling properties. Here we show that, unexpectedly, LPA and serum almost completely inhibit the transwell migration of B16 melanoma cells, with alkyl-LPA(18:1) being 10-fold more potent than acyl-LPA(18:1). The anti-migratory response to LPA is highly polarized and dependent on protein kinase A (PKA) but not Rho kinase activity; it is associated with a rapid increase in intracellular cAMP levels and PIP3 depletion from the plasma membrane. B16 cells express LPA(2), LPA(5) and LPA(6) receptors. We show that LPA-induced chemorepulsion is mediated specifically by the alkyl-LPA-preferring LPA(5) receptor (GPR92), which raises intracellular cAMP via a noncanonical pathway. Our results define LPA(5) as an anti-migratory receptor and they implicate the cAMP-PKA pathway, along with reduced PIP3 signaling, as an effector of chemorepulsion in B16 melanoma cells.

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