Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e28402. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028402. Epub 2011 Dec 14.

Influence of 17β-estradiol on gene expression of Paracoccidioides during mycelia-to-yeast transition.

Author information

1
California Institute for Medical Research, Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, California, United States of America.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Paracoccidioides is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. Infection is initiated by inhalation of conidia (C) or mycelial (M) fragments, which subsequently differentiate into yeast (Y). Epidemiological studies show a striking predominance of paracoccidioidomycosis in adult men compared to premenopausal women. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that the female hormone (17β-estradiol, E(2)) regulates or inhibits M-or-C-to-Y transition. In this study we have profiled transcript expression to understand the molecular mechanism of how E(2) inhibits M-to-Y transition.

METHODOLOGY:

We assessed temporal gene expression in strain Pb01 in the presence or absence of E(2) at various time points through 9 days of the M-to-Y transition using an 11,000 element random-shear genomic DNA microarray and verified the results using quantitative real time-PCR. E(2)-regulated clones were sequenced to identify genes and biological function.

PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:

E(2)-treatment affected gene expression of 550 array elements, with 331 showing up-regulation and 219 showing down-regulation at one or more time points (p≤0.001). Genes with low expression after 4 or 12 h exposure to E(2) belonged to pathways involved in heat shock response (hsp90 and hsp70), energy metabolism, and several retrotransposable elements. Y-related genes, α-1,3-glucan synthase, mannosyltransferase and Y20, demonstrated low or delayed expression in E(2)-treated cultures. Genes potentially involved in signaling, such as palmitoyltransferase (erf2), small GTPase RhoA, phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase, and protein kinase (serine/threonine) showed low expression in the presence of E(2), whereas a gene encoding for an arrestin domain-containing protein showed high expression. Genes related to ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation, and oxidative stress response genes were up-regulated by E(2).

CONCLUSION:

This study characterizes the effect of E(2) at the molecular level on the inhibition of the M-to-Y transition and is indicative that the inhibitory actions of E(2) may be working through signaling genes that regulate dimorphism.

PMID:
22194832
PMCID:
PMC3237447
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0028402
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

MeSH terms, Substances, Secondary source ID

MeSH terms

Substances

Secondary source ID

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center