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Pathol Int. 2012 Jan;62(1):36-42. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1827.2011.02751.x.

Pathologic study of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 cases from India.

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Department of Electron Microscopy and Histopath, Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College and Hospital, Pune, India.


The pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 originated in Mexico and rapidly spread to the United States and many other countries. India reported the first pandemic influenza case in May 2009. Autopsy studies describing the pathology of pandemic influenza infection in humans have appeared in the literature and most of these were from Western countries. We present the clinicopathologic features in 46 fatal cases with confirmed pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus infection during August 2009 to October 2010. Postmortem needle biopsy tissues were examined for histopathological changes and distribution of virus antigen by immunohistochemistry. The results are comparable with previous autopsy studies. Diffuse alveolar damage was the consistent finding in the lung tissues. However, underlying medical conditions were not noted in the cases from present study. Consistent presence of viral antigen was noted in the bronchiolar epithelium without any reference to the duration of illness. This study also emphasizes the use of the postmortem needle biopsy technique whenever an autopsy is not possible.

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