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Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012 Nov;18(11):1104-10. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2011.03716.x. Epub 2011 Dec 22.

Clofazimine in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

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1
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. xuhongbin119@yahoo.cn

Abstract

Clofazimine has shown activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including multidrug-resistant strains in vitro and in animal studies. However, clinical experience with clofazimine in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is scarce. We reported our clinical experience with 39 MDR-TB patients treated with combination regimens that included clofazimine. From January 2008 to March 2011, 39 patients received clofazimine for the treatment of MDR-TB in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital. Patients had isolates resistant to a median of six drugs (range, 2-11 drugs). Of the 39 cases, 36 had cavitary changes noted on initial chest radiograph or chest computed tomography, and positive sputum-smear microscopy results at the time of MDR-TB diagnosis. At data censure, 15 of the 39 patients had successful therapy, with at least five consistently negative cultures documented for the final 12 months of treatment. Eleven continued to receive treatment. There were no deaths. Thirteen patients had a poor outcome, including four defaults and nine treatment failures. Culture conversion occurred in 22 cases at a median of 12 weeks. Side-effects occurred in 34 patients, mainly including skin discolouration, ichthyosis and gastrointestinal adverse events. No patients reported significant toxicity likely to be attributable to clofazimine therapy. Adverse events were managed by combinations of dose adjustment and symptom management. In our experience, clofazimine was well tolerated and may have efficacy in the treatment of MDR-TB.

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