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Pak J Pharm Sci. 2012 Jan;25(1):289-94.

Lead pollution - a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in Asian developing countries.

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  • 1Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.


Lead (Pb) pollution is a serious problem in the developing countries, especially in South Asia. No levels of blood Pb can be considered safe for human health. While hypertensive effects of Pb have been well studies, there are only a few studies on the relationship of Pb exposure to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Asian developing countries. The underlying mechanism is still unclear; however, oxidative stress and hyperhomocysteinemia appear to be most plausible hypotheses for the development of atherosclerosis leading to CVD. Enforcement of regulations for control of Pb pollution, increased public awareness about the harmful effects of Pb, cessation of smoking, frequent use of fruit juices and avoidance from iron and folate deficiencies would be required to protect masses from the deleterious effects of Pb.

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