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Chromosome Res. 2012 Jan;20(1):95-110. doi: 10.1007/s10577-011-9267-7.

The origin and differentiation process of X and Y chromosomes of the black marsh turtle (Siebenrockiella crassicollis, Geoemydidae, Testudines).

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Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Japan.


The black marsh turtle (Siebenrockiella crassicollis) has morphologically differentiated X and Y sex chromosomes. To elucidate the origin and evolutionary process of S. crassicollis X and Y chromosomes, we performed cross-species chromosome painting with chromosome-specific DNA from Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) and chromosome mapping of the sex-linked genes of S. crassicollis using FISH. The X and Y chromosomes of S. crassicollis were hybridized with DNA probe of P. sinensis chromosome 5, which is homologous to chicken chromosome 5. S. crassicollis homologues of 14 chicken chromosome 5-linked genes were all localized to the X long arm, whereas two genes were mapped to the Y short arm and the other 12 genes were localized to the Y long arm in the same order as the X chromosome. This result suggests that extensive linkage homology has been retained between chicken chromosome 5 and S. crassicollis X and Y chromosomes and that S. crassicollis X and Y chromosomes are at an early stage of sex chromosome differentiation. Comparison of the locations of two site-specific repetitive DNA sequences on the X and Y chromosomes demonstrated that the centromere shift was the result of centromere repositioning, not of pericentric inversion.

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