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J Periodontol. 2012 Sep;83(9):1183-91. doi: 10.1902/jop.2011.110346. Epub 2011 Dec 19.

Relationships among interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, adipokines, vitamin D, and chronic periodontitis.

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Department of Periodontology, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.



The aim of this study is to explore relationships among serum adipokines, vitamin D, and clinical and microbial parameters of chronic periodontitis before and after treatment.


Weight, height, and smoking status were recorded for 56 patients with chronic periodontitis. Plaque, gingivitis, bleeding on probing, suppuration, probing depth, and clinical attachment level were measured at all teeth present. Subgingival biofilm samples from each tooth were analyzed for levels of 40 bacterial species using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and vitamin D were measured at baseline. Sample collection was then performed in a subset of the population 6 months after therapy (n = 17). Serum samples were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoassays. Differences in clinical, microbial, and serum factors among groups were sought using the Mann-Whitney U test. Correlations among factors were evaluated using regression analysis. Effects of therapy were sought using the Wilcoxon signed rank test.


There were positive correlations between adiponectin/vitamin D and between IL-6/leptin, negative correlations between IL-6/vitamin D and leptin/vitamin D, but no associations between serum analytes and clinical or microbial parameters. Sex and body mass index were associated with levels of adipokines. Periodontal therapy improved clinical and microbiologic parameters but did not influence the levels of serum analytes.


Adipokines and IL-6 levels were affected by sex and body mass index. Serum analytes were not influenced by periodontal therapy.

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