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IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern B Cybern. 2012 Jun;42(3):793-804. doi: 10.1109/TSMCB.2011.2177968. Epub 2011 Dec 14.

A telepresence mobile robot controlled with a noninvasive brain-computer interface.

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Instituto de Investigación en Ingeniería de Aragón and the Departamento de Informática e Ingeniería de Sistemas, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.


This paper reports an electroencephalogram-based brain-actuated telepresence system to provide a user with presence in remote environments through a mobile robot, with access to the Internet. This system relies on a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI) and a mobile robot with autonomous navigation and camera orientation capabilities. The shared-control strategy is built by the BCI decoding of task-related orders (selection of visible target destinations or exploration areas), which can be autonomously executed by the robot. The system was evaluated using five healthy participants in two consecutive steps: 1) screening and training of participants and 2) preestablished navigation and visual exploration telepresence tasks. On the basis of the results, the following evaluation studies are reported: 1) technical evaluation of the device and its main functionalities and 2) the users' behavior study. The overall result was that all participants were able to complete the designed tasks, reporting no failures, which shows the robustness of the system and its feasibility to solve tasks in real settings where joint navigation and visual exploration were needed. Furthermore, the participants showed great adaptation to the telepresence system.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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