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Cancer Res. 2012 Feb 1;72(3):779-89. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-2941. Epub 2011 Dec 16.

Antitumor activity of BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib in preclinical models of BRAF-mutant colorectal cancer.

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Roche Pharmaceuticals, Nutley, New Jersey 07110, USA.


The protein kinase BRAF is a key component of the RAS-RAF signaling pathway which plays an important role in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Mutations in BRAF at codon 600 promote catalytic activity and are associated with 8% of all human (solid) tumors, including 8% to 10% of colorectal cancers (CRC). Here, we report the preclinical characterization of vemurafenib (RG7204; PLX4032; RO5185426), a first-in-class, specific small molecule inhibitor of BRAF(V600E) in BRAF-mutated CRC cell lines and tumor xenograft models. As a single agent, vemurafenib shows dose-dependent inhibition of ERK and MEK phosphorylation, thereby arresting cell proliferation in BRAF(V600)-expressing cell lines and inhibiting tumor growth in BRAF(V600E) bearing xenograft models. Because vemurafenib has shown limited single-agent clinical activity in BRAF(V600E)-mutant metastatic CRC, we therefore explored a range of combination therapies, with both standard agents and targeted inhibitors in preclinical xenograft models. In a BRAF-mutant CRC xenograft model with de novo resistance to vemurafenib (RKO), tumor growth inhibition by vemurafenib was enhanced by combining with an AKT inhibitor (MK-2206). The addition of vemurafenib to capecitabine and/or bevacizumab, cetuximab and/or irinotecan, or erlotinib resulted in increased antitumor activity and improved survival in xenograft models. Together, our findings suggest that the administration of vemurafenib in combination with standard-of-care or novel targeted therapies may lead to enhanced and sustained clinical antitumor efficacy in CRCs harboring the BRAF(V600E) mutation.

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